Thursday, December 7, 2017

A Particular Tragedy at Pearl Harbor

“Trapped in a Steel Prison”


Of all the tragedies, American forces suffered on the morning of December 7, 1941, the fate of sailors trapped inside sunken ships may have been the worst.  

In the moments before the Japanese struck, Stephen B. Young, a cook on Oklahoma, was cleaning up after breakfast. He and his Hawaiian girlfriend had a picnic planned that afternoon. A quick glance out a porthole told him weather was perfect. Young smiled, realizing he had money for a change. A ten dollar bill and a single were tucked safely in his wallet.

            When the ship was hit and rolled over, Young and thirty others took shelter in a partially-flooded passage. Young dived underwater and reached another compartment, searching for a way out. Floating bodies and mattresses blocked his way. He saw a fat dead man stuck in a porthole. Eventually, he and the other trapped sailors settled down and waited for rescue. Now and then, as hours passed, one or another would leave to look for an escape route. None returned. The waters rose inch by inch round those who remained.

            Young thought about home and family. Even under these conditions memories made him happy. Then he prayed. Someone joked: “Join the Navy and see the world—from the bottom of Pearl Harbor!” 

            Hours passed. 

            Men lost hope. 

            Young and a friend made bets how they might die, though both knew they could not live to collect. Then, on December 8, they heard hammering above. Rescue crews cut their way through the steel hull and pulled Young and the others to safety.

The USS Oklahoma on December 8.

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            An even worse fate awaited three sailors aboard West Virginia. As with Oklahoma, when West Virginia went down, many crewmen were imprisoned below decks. In days that followed Marine guards on nearby docks could hear a tireless banging coming from deep inside the ship. It was awful to think about the poor men’s fates and combat-hardened Marines covered their ears and tried not to hear.

            There was no way to know where inside the sunken vessel the poor men might be.

There was no way to help.

            Among those trapped were North Dakota friends, Ronald Endicott, 18, Clifford Olds, 20, and Louis “Buddy” Costin, 21. We know they sealed off a large storage room, surviving for more than two weeks. Months would pass. The battered wreck would be raised, her big guns and other parts salvaged. When workers opened the room where the three friend’s bodies lay they found sixteen days crossed off a calendar in red pencil. Flashlight batteries and food containers littered the floor. A manhole cover over a passage leading to a supply of fresh water was pushed aside.

            These last three victims of the attack on Pearl Harbor had survived until two days before Christmas, December 23, 1941.

USS West Virginia (foreground) burns on December 7, having already settled on the harbor floor.

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A FULL TREATMENT of the story of the attack on Pearl Harbor, written for students, can be found at Middle School History and Tips for Teachers.

Sunday, November 19, 2017

The For-Profit Model in Education: You Get Strippers!



TEN MONTHS INTO HER TERM as Secretary of Education, it’s time to check on how Betsy DeVos is doing. Besides keeping our nation’s children from grizzly attacks, Ms. DeVos has been spending an inordinate amount of time on the road visiting America’s elementary and secondary schools. That is: she visits the schools run by for-profit charter operations. DeVos, if you don’t already know, is a huge fan of charter schools, vouchers, corporate education and reducing teacher salaries too. Like every other member of the Trump team, she believes heart and soul that if we deliver the future of young people into the grasp of Big Corporations, we’ll get “business efficiency” in our schools. And all the young people will live happily ever after.

And all the Big Corporations will profit happily ever after, as well.

In fact, the Secretary of Education has also been working diligently to keep students in higher education safe from the predatory practices of for-profit college crooks. She’s done this by making it harder to hold those very same crooks accountable for those very same predatory practices.

Her handpicked choice to guard against fraud in the for-profit college industry is Julian Schmoke Jr. What was Mr. Schmoke’s previous job, which fit him to ferret out fraud? He worked for DeVry University, which settled a $100 million lawsuit in 2016 for perpetrating fraud upon students.

Robert Eitel is another top DeVos aide. His experience with for-profit colleges includes working with another pirate organization, one forced to refund $23.5 million to students related to bogus loan deals.

None of this crookery is to be confused with Trump University, of course (ordered to repay $25 million to bilked students).

NOR ARE WE TALKING about Corinthian College (fined $30 million for deceptive business practices and now defunct, leaving taxpayers on the hook for $183 million in student loans that must be forgiven).

Here, we do not intend in any way to link the lax enforcement policies of the new Secretary with stories about Education Management Corporation (forced to pay a $95.5 million fraud settlement; and later forced to offer $103 million in restitution in a second case). We do not wish to muddy the waters with the tale of Career Education Corporation (which paid a $10.25 million fine) or the saga of Ashford University (fined $7.25 million after recruiters lied to students).

We do not mean to hint that DeVos might turn a blind eye on the misdeeds of the vultures that picked student bank accounts clean at Charlotte School of Law (forced into bankruptcy in the wake of a fraud scandal). She wouldn’t just ignore the outlaws who operated Chester Career College (fined $5 million after students complained courses were a “sham”) would she? Or the bandits at ITT Educational Services (forced to close 130 locations after students filed a class action lawsuit alleging predatory lending practices). Or the brigands who cooked the books at Le Cordon Bleu (a culinary school hit with a $40 million settlement in a suit filed by students).

We do not mean to imply that Ms. DeVos would wink the skullduggery at Lincoln College Online (required to repay $2.3 million for lying about job placement numbers), or Stratford University (graduation rate: 8%), or the University of Phoenix (fined twice, $20 million combined) or Westwood College. (Westwood was fined $7 million in 2009, taken to court again in 2012 and ordered to pay $4.5 million in fines and restitution. The school was nailed a third time for $15 million in a case involving misleading students about job placement results). And who could ever possibly dream that a woman whose family fortune was raised on a sleazy Amway foundation would countenance business corruption in the for-profit college ranks?   

We cannot say definitively that DeVos and her pro-business pals are doing their best to make it easier for profiteers to bilk young Americans.

It just seems that way.

SO LET’S FINISH with a for-profit bang! Consider the trials (many) and tribulations of Alejandro Amor, founder of FastTrain College in Florida. Business was good for a time. Amor bought a 54-foot yacht. He had his own private plane. He could afford a $2 million home on the beach.

What went wrong at his fine institute of higher learning? 

Investigators found FastTrain had enrolled 1,300 students who lacked high school diplomas. So the school lied about their eligibility to win federal loans. My favorite part of the story comes by way of the Miami Herald:

Ex-employees told investigators that Amor boosted enrollments by hiring former strippers as recruiters, some of whom wore “short skirts and stiletto heels” to work. Amor told one employee to “hire some hot mommas” and “hire the sluttiest girls he could find.”

So, as they say, it came to pass.

The courts ruled. FastTrain went off the trestle and smashed up at the bottom of a deep ravine. The school closed. Amor went to jail. The slutty recruiters, one must assume, went back to doing what they did best.

AND THAT IS EXACTLY the kind of proof we need to show that less business regulation will truly “Make America Great Again” one Big Corporations run all our schools, K-12 and up.

I, for one, can hardly wait.

According to DeVos and her ilk, with business methods, we’re sure to see vastly improved achievement in our classrooms!

Plus, we’ll get strippers!

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For additional evidence of what young Americans can expect once business regulations are dead see: Corporate Education: What Did You Expect?





Monday, October 23, 2017

Discipline with Humor: Elvis's Belly Button Lint

EARLY IN MY CAREER I came up with a humorous approach for dealing with minor violations of classroom decorum. 

I realized essay punishments could be humorous and effective. 

In most cases, I simply wanted kids to quit goofing around or talking too much. No sense treating breaches of etiquette like criminal infractions. Stick them with a 150-word essay as a simple reminder. Making it comical allowed peers to share a laugh and showed students you wanted to have fun in class, while still expecting everyone to abide by the rules. When Kayla was tardy too often, I had her write about how she became a fashion icon by inventing concrete shoes. On another occasion, Josh seemed to be writing a love note instead of doing his assigned reading. I had him write an essay about falling asleep in class and getting his history book stuck to his face for a week. 

As you might expect, he explained in his essay how his rare affliction made it impossible to flirt with the girl of his dreams.

One day, Angie got in trouble for some minor matter. I had her write: “I Collect Belly Button Lint for a Hobby.” Angie didn’t stop at 150 words. She was a collector in the truest sense. Her essay filled five pages. She had lint from actors, from every president in the last twenty years, and dreamed of finding the Holy Grail of lint—from the belly button of Elvis Presley (assuming Elvis was still alive). 

In most cases punishment fit the “crime.”  One day, Rob came flying through my door, with a friend in hot pursuit. Before I could tell them both to slow down Rob tripped and somersaulted across the linoleum. He dusted himself off without injury, but I made Rob write about his life as “The Human Cannonball.” 

Wendy R. (a straight-A student) had to write an essay after laughing once too often and disturbing class. I forget the title; but she pinpointed her friend Wendy M. as the source of all her difficulties “At times Wendy’s nostrils will go in and out as if they were controlled by a motor.”

That was her reason for laughing.

Max tended to turn around too often and talk to friends. One day I grew tired of viewing the back of his head. 

I HAD HIM WRITE about having a giant tongue. In his essay he called Landon, the friend who had lured him into sin, to inform him of his tragic condition. The essay followed the conventions of a popular Budweiser beer advertisement:

“Hello.” [Landon answers.]

“Wattttttttthhhhhuuuup!!!”

“Hey, man.  I would finish the lines in the commercial but I just gotta ask. What’s wrong with your voice?”

“Miy tung.”

“What?”

“Miy tung iz big,” I said angrily.

“Oh, I see.

“Wat sod I du?”

“Gee, got me.”

“Tanks, yor no hep.”  Then I hung up…..


ONE LAST EXAMPLE deserves mention. One day a young man got in trouble for talking during detention. I asked him to write “The Life of a Cucumber.”

His story began: “I started out the first part of my life in a little cold plastic bag. The bag sat on a shelf in the store, for a long time before some one decided to buy the bag of seeds.”

This essay was not particularly funny, but carried the name of the author, Brian ----.  Only Brian’s handwriting was unusually good.  

Normally, Brian’s handwriting was abominable. 

I still have my notes describing the incident:  “Caught Brian ----lying today because his mother wrote his punishment essay. Brian claimed, in declining order:  

1) he wrote it; she corrected it 
2) okay, no, mom wrote part 
3) well, yes, she wrote it all.

I called Mrs. ---- that evening and she offered lame defense: “I don’t see anything wrong with a mother helping a child.”

“Nor do I,” I responded. “But you weren’t helping. You did the essay for him and let him off his punishment entirely.” 


I told her Brian would have to write a different essay entirely; but if it had been in my power I would have given her a topic all her own to do: “What Happens to a Boy when Mom is an Enabler?”

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If you found this useful you might also enjoy: The Best Seating Chart Ever. That post also deals with discipline and a dose of humor.


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If you found this post helpful you might like my book about teaching, Two Legs Suffice: Lessons Learned by Teaching.


It’s based on my 33 years in the classroom and focuses on the one factor which, I believe, most dramatically influences success.


Angie was in search of the Holy Grail of Lint.

Sunday, September 3, 2017

I Read Mein Kampf: So You Don't Have To

YOU CAN THANK ME, I suppose. I once read Mein Kampf, plowing through all 687 sickening pages, and took notes. In light of recent events in Charlottesville, however, it seems we need to reexamine what it was Hitler had to say. And if you have the stomach you can get by with just these notes.

Certainly, the toxic dangers of Nazi ideology were always clear. Hitler’s poisonous ideas are on display on every page. Hatred, particularly, but not exclusively, for Jews, is the foundation of his thought.

For teachers today—especially history teachers—it can be chilling to realize that as a boy Adolf Hitler was dramatically influenced by Dr. Leopold Pötsch. This educator alternately moved Hitler and his classmates to tears or inflamed them with enthusiasm for nationalistic causes.

Hitler explains:

What made our good fortune all the greater was that this teacher knew how to illuminate the past by examples from the present, and how from the past to draw inferences for the present. As a result he had more understanding than anyone else for the daily problems which then held us breathless. He used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating us, frequently appealing to our sense of national honor…
     This teacher made history my favorite subject.
     And indeed, though he had no such intention, it was then that I became a little revolutionary. (15)

Even growing up in Austria, young Adolf saw racial danger at every hand: “In the north and south the poison of foreign nations gnawed at the body of our nationality, and even Vienna was visibly becoming more and more of an un-German city.” Soon “the granite foundation” of a future ideology was set. Threats to racial purity were as life-threatening as “incurable tumors.” (15; 22; 29)

Reading Mein Kampf has always been a sickening slog, tedious page after page, punctuated by venomous fights of illogic. Even Hitler’s opinion of the intellectual capacity of his followers drips cynicism. Political ideas, he says, must be “engraved in the memory and feeling of the people by eternal repetition.” “The psyche of the great masses is not receptive to anything that is half-hearted and weak.” (31; 42)

LIKE ALL WHO HATE, he consistently dehumanizes his enemies and justifies violence to further his cause. When workers with different political views tried to drive him from a job site when he was a young man, threatening to toss him off a scaffold, Hitler said he had to decide. If ordinary Aryan workers were blind, was he wrong to believe in the greatness of the Aryan race?

I wrestled with my innermost soul: are these people [the workers] human, worthy to belong to a great nation?
     A painful question; for if it is answered in the affirmative, the struggle for my nationality really ceases to be worth the hardships and sacrifices which the best of us have to make for the sake of such scum; and it is answered in the negative, our nation is pitifully poor in human beings.

It would be years before he answered that question to his satisfaction. Meanwhile, he watched in dismay as Social Democrats, Communists and other political parties spread their competing ideologies in various ways. Hitler railed, for example, against “the brutal daily press, shunning no villainy, employing every means of slander, lying with such a virtuosity that would bend iron beams, all in the gospel of a new humanity.”

Eventually, it dawned on him that his beloved Aryan people had been terrorized. They were victims. Their enemies—those in politics and the press—were seducers. Hitler promised he would break the grip of opposing political groups, including Communists, whose philosophy he compared to a form of “terror.” He would do so by opposing them with “equal terror.” (41-42; 44)

Hitler writes that he had been fooled growing up in Austria. The Jews he came across had “become Europeanized and had taken on a human look.” Only gradually did he grasp the truth. “Wherever I went, I began to see Jews, and the more I saw, the more sharply they became distinguished in my eyes from the rest of humanity.” “By their very exterior you could tell that these were no lovers of water, and, to your distress, you often knew it with your eyes closed. Later I often grew sick to my stomach from the smell of these caftan-wearers.

Worse, “you discovered the moral stains on this ‘chosen people:’”

Was there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it?
     If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light—a kike! (52; 57)

Hitler warned against a diabolical Jewish influence in the press, in literature, in art and in theater. “This was pestilence, spiritual pestilence, worse than the Black Death of olden times, and the people were being infected with it.” He began to examine the worldwide press with clear eyes. What he read was “more akin to lies than honest truth; and the writers were—Jews.” (58)

He attacks the Jews again and again in the pages of Mein Kampf. At one point he likens them to a “spider” slowly beginning to “suck the blood out of the people’s pores.” Race purity must be guarded:

What we must fight for is to safeguard the existence and reproduction of our race and our people, the sustenance of our children and the purity of our blood, the freedom and independence of the fatherland, so that our people may mature for the fulfillment of the mission allotted it by the creator of the universe. (58; 193; 214)

Student’s today—and apparently more adults than we’d like to think—may need to be reminded Hitler’s racism and hatred were multifaceted. In one passage he refers to Negroes as “half-apes.” He describes being “repelled” by a “mixture of Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, Ruthenians, Serbs, and Croats.” Worst of all was “the eternal mushroom of humanity—Jews and more Jews.” (123; 394)

As early as 1913, he says he had already “expressed the conviction that the question of the future of the German nation was the question of destroying Marxism.” In Hitler’s warped worldview, Communists were as bad as Jews, and often one and the same. Marxism, he warned, could take form “only in the brain of a monster—not a man.” In another illogical leap, since Communists oppose all forms of religion, he wrote, “If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.” “By defending myself against the Jew,” he continued, “I am fighting for the work of the Lord.” (63; 65; 155)

Yet another danger was Western-style democracy, for “the parliamentary principle of majority rule sins against the basic aristocratic principle of Nature.” Nature intended superior races and superior individuals to dominate. In a Germanic democracy—and by this road did he expect to rise to power—“the leader is elected, but then enjoys unconditional authority.” (81; 344)

In other words, his plans for a dictatorship should have been clear.

ADOLF HITLER ALSO HAD DEFINITE PLANS for spreading his ideas. “The broad masses have a very limited understanding of politics. By far the greatest share in their ‘political education,’ which in this case is most aptly designated by the word ‘propaganda,’ falls to the account of the press.” Equally important would be “the mass meeting, the only way to exert a truly effective, because personal, influence on large sections of people” and to win their allegiance to the cause:

Particularly the broad masses of people can be moved only by the power of speech. And all great movements are popular movements, volcanic eruptions of human passions and emotional sentiments, stirred either by the cruel Goddess of Distress or by the firebrand of the word hurled among the masses; they are not the lemonade-like outpourings of literary aesthetes and drawing-room heroes. (85; 106; 107)

Hitler believed only key elements of a human population were valuable. So any decision by members of the valuable elements to limit the number of children to whom they gave birth meant “robbing” the nation of its future. The German people must multiply and spread east across Europe.

[It] can certainly not be the intention of Heaven to give one people fifty times as much land and soil in this world as another. In this case we must not let political boundaries obscure for us the boundaries of eternal justice. If this earth really has room for all to live in, let us be given the soil we need for our livelihood.
True, they [neighbor nations] will not be willing to do this. But then the law of self-preservation goes into effect; and what is refused to amicable methods, it is up to the fist to take.  

Poles and Russians and other Slavic peoples barred the way. Someday It would be necessary “to obtain by the German sword sod for the German plow and daily bread for the nation.” (138-139; 140)

When World War I erupted, Hitler was thrilled. “I fell down on my knees and thanked Heaven from an overflowing heart for granting me the good fortune of being permitted to live at this time…A fight for freedom had begun, mightier than the earth had ever seen.”
True. Long years of combat eventually took a toll and Hitler came to accept the “horror” of a war he had anxiously awaited. “The enthusiasm gradually cooled and the exuberant joy was stifled by mortal fear. The time came when every man had to struggle between the instinct of self-preservation and the admonitions of duty…often it was only the last remnant of conscience which decided the issue.” Hitler would steel himself and do his duty, and do it well. (161; 165)

(Here, we might note he won an Iron Cross for bravery, the highest medal the German army bestows.)

The war dragged on for four bloody years. Communist elements inside Germany continued to spread their ideas, what Hitler referred to as “Marxism…this pestilence,” a “venomous plague,” helped by “Jewified universities.” It should have been the duty of any government to destroy this threat, he argued, “to exterminate mercilessly the agitators who were misleading the nation. “If the best men were dying at the front,” he added, “the least we could do was to wipe out the vermin.” (167-169)

That last statement is typical of almost all his thinking. In his mind his enemies were always subhuman—vermin—scum—parasites—incurable tumors—always a threat to the best racial elements.

HITLER RETURNS OFTEN TO THE IMPORTANCE of propaganda. “[Its] effect for the most part,” he explains, “must be aimed at the emotions and only to a very limited degree at the so-called intellect.”

The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan.

Propaganda was a blunt tool to wield ruthlessly in service to the cause. “It must confine itself to a few points and repeat them over and over. Here, as so often in this world, persistence is the first and most important requirement for success.” The masses are slow to make up their minds “and only after the simplest ideas are repeated thousands of times will the masses finally remember them.” (180-185)

Again he makes clear he has no respect for the intellect of the masses, since “in view of the primitive simplicity of their minds, they more easily fall a victim to a big lie than to a little one, since they themselves lie in little things, but would be ashamed of lies that were too big.” (231)
And in years to come, Hitler, backed by a massive Nazi propaganda machine, would become adept at pedaling the Big Lie.

Even a limited democracy, he complained, left the ballot in the hands of “the mob of the simple or credulous.” A future Nazi government would have to guide the thinking of the simple people. That meant control of all sources of news, as well as control of curriculum in the nation’s schools:

The state, therefore, has the duty of watching over their education and preventing any mischief. It must particularly exercise strict control over the press; for its influence on these people is by far the strongest and most penetrating, since it is applied, not once in a while, but over and over again.
…the state must not forget that all means must serve an end; it must not let itself be confused by the drivel about so-called ‘freedom of the press’ and let itself be talked into neglecting its duty and denying the nation the food which it needs and which is good for it: with ruthless determination it must make sure of this instrument of popular education, and place it in the service of the state and nation. (242)

What exactly was at stake? All the great advances in history, Hitler insisted, “everything we admire on this earth today—science and art, technology and inventions—is only the creative product of a few peoples and originally perhaps of one race.” The key was to protect that one race. “All great cultures of the past perished,” he warned, “only because the originally creative race died out from blood poisoning.”

All the culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan. This very fact admits of the not unfounded inference that he alone was the founder of all higher humanity, therefore representing the prototype of all that we understand by the word ‘man.’ (288-290)

SCANNING A MAP OF EUROPE, Hitler saw a future filled with a “multitude of lower-type beings standing at their [the Aryans’] disposal as helpers.” Once in power, the Nazis would employ these lesser humans as “suitable beasts.”

Hitler pounds away at the racial theme:

Blood mixture and the resultant drop in the racial level is the sole cause of the dying out of old cultures; for men do not perish as a result of lost wars, but by the loss of that force of resistance which is contained only in pure blood.
     All who are not of good race in the world are chaff. (291; 294; 296)

By comparison, the Jews banded together out of a “primitive herd instinct.” Left alone in this world, they “would stifle in filth and offal…”

He is and remains the typical parasite, a sponger who like a noxious bacillus keeps spreading as soon as a favorable medium invites him. And the effect of his existence is also like that of spongers: wherever he appears, the host people dies out after a shorter or longer period. (301-302; 305)

The Jew “poisons the blood of others, but preserves his own. The Jew almost never marries a Christian woman; it is the Christian who marries a Jewess. The bastards, however, take after the Jewish side.” “With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people.” To cover the damage, and his own tracks, the Jew, “talks more and more of the equality of all men without regard to race and color. The fools begin to believe him.” (316; 325)

The Aryan race, cutting across national boundaries, bonded by blood, a folk group, must be preserved, protected and strengthened:

…the folkish philosophy…by no means believes in an equality of races, but along with their difference it recognizes their higher or lesser value and feels itself obligated, through this knowledge, to promote the victory of the better and stronger, and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the eternal will that dominates this universe…It sees not only the different value of the races, but also the different value of individuals…in a bastardized and niggerized world all the concepts of the humanly beautiful and sublime, as well as all ideas of an idealized future of our humanity, would be lost forever. (383)

Aryans must remain apart:

Thus, the highest purpose of a folkish state is concern for the preservation of those original racial elements which bestow culture and create the beauty and dignity of a higher mankind. We, as Aryans, can conceive of the state only as the living organism of a nationality, which not only assures the preservation of this nationality, but by the development of its spiritual and ideal abilities leads it to the highest freedom. (394)

IN THE QUEST FOR RACIAL PURITY, the full apparatus of the state would serve as “a mighty weapon” to which “everyone must submit.” Individual rights would not matter.

[There] is only one holiest human right, and this right is at the same time the holiest obligation, to wit: to see to it that the blood is preserved pure and, by preserving the best humanity, to create the possibility of a nobler development of these beings.
     A folkish state must therefore begin by raising marriage from the level of a continuous defilement of the race, and give it the consecration of an institution which is called upon to produce images of the Lord and not monstrosities halfway between man and ape. (399)

The state “must set race in the center of all life. It must take care to keep it pure. It must declare the child to be the most precious treasure of the people. It must see to it that only the healthy beget children.”

And conversely it must be considered reprehensible: to withhold healthy children from the nation…the wishes and the selfishness of the individual must appear as nothing and submit… [The government] must declare unfit for propagation all who are in any way visibly sick or who have inherited a disease and can therefore pass it on, and put this into actual practice. Conversely, it must take care that the fertility of the healthy woman is not limited by the financial irresponsibility of a state regime which turns the blessing of children into a curse for the parents. (402; 403-404)

Once he rose to power, the Nazis would facilitate early marriage among desirable elements, increasing the number of racially valuable children. Marriage, he warned, “cannot be an end in itself, but must serve the one higher goal, the increase and preservation of the species and the race. This alone is its meaning and task.” Even the “right of personal freedom recedes before the duty to preserve the race.”

What about the less desirable elements?

“The demand that defective people be prevented from propagating equally defective offspring is a demand of the clearest reason and if systematically executed represents the most humane act of mankind.” In other words, the policy outlines of Nazism were already laid down. In years to come tens of thousands of handicapped German children would die in gas chambers as a result. (252; 255)

ONCE HITLER TOOK POWER, shaping proper racial attitudes would become a job for the schools. He explains: “…education in particular must first of all consider and promote physical health; for taken in the mass, a healthy, forceful spirit will be found only in a healthy and forceful body.” Every day, one hour of physical training in the morning and one in the afternoon would be required. If stress were placed on physical beauty, “the seduction of hundreds of thousands of girls by bow-legged, repulsive Jewish bastards would not be possible.” (407; 412)

The schools would be a critical tool in spreading Nazi ideology. Science, world history and cultural history would all be taught in such a way as to foster “national pride,” “so that when the young man leaves his school he is not a half pacifist, democrat, or something else, but a whole German.”

The crown of the folkish state’s entire work of education and training must be to burn the racial sense and racial feeling into the instinct and the intellect, the heart and brain of the youth entrusted to it. No boy and no girl must leave school without having been led to an ultimate realization of the necessity and essence of blood purity. (426; 427)

Nor was there any secret in how Hitler hoped to rise to power. His political party would be protected by special guards, organized into military units, and these “monitor troops must be preceded by the reputation of not being a debating club, but a combat group determined to go to any length.” (490) Followers would be stirred with heavy doses of martial music. The movement would be bound by symbols, including the Nazi flag, which Hitler claims he designed in 1920.

In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalistic idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always has been and always will be anti-Semitic. (497)

Once united under Nazi rule, Germany would not repeat mistakes made during World War I. In those years the best young men, “filled with fervent love of their fatherland, with great personal courage or the highest consciousness of duty” volunteered to fight and even die for their country. When Germany was forced to surrender in November 1918, “it was not the German people as such that committed this act of Cain, but its deserters, pimps, and other rabble that shun the light.” (520-521)

Evil politicians, puppets of Marxists and Jews, stabbed Germany in the back. Punishment would come once Hitler rose to power. “[A] German national court must judge and execute some ten thousand of the organizing and hence responsible criminals of the November betrayal and everything that goes with it,” he insisted. In other words, the future would be filled with gas chambers:

If at the beginning of the War and during the War twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under poison gas, as happened to hundreds of thousands of the very best German workers in the field [of battle], the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain. On the contrary: twelve thousand scoundrels eliminated in time might have saved the lives of a million real Germans, valuable for the future. (679)

CALLING ON READERS TO JOIN HIM in a titanic struggle, he promised he and his party would elevate the “Jewish question… transforming it into the driving impulse of a great people’s movement.” The Jew, Hitler said, was “the mortal enemy of Aryan humanity and all Christendom.”

This contamination of our blood, blindly ignored by hundreds of thousands of our people, is carried on systematically by the Jew today. Systematically these black parasites of the nation defile our inexperienced young blond girls and thereby destroy something which can no longer be replaced in this world. (545; 561; 562)

The French were also a mortal threat. Of them, Hitler says: “This people, which is basically becoming more and more negrified, constitutes in its tie with the aims of Jewish world domination an enduring danger for the existence of the white race in Europe.” The French were a “mulatto state,” infected by the blood of “lower humanity.” The German people must rise as one, having “recognized racial pollution as the original sin of humanity,” and defeat France once and for all. (624; 644)

Nazi leaders would have to:

…find the courage to gather our people and their strength for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or serving others as a slave nation.

State boundaries are made by man and changed by man. The fact that a nation has succeeded in acquiring an undue amount of soil constitutes no higher obligation that it should be recognized eternally. At most it proves the strength of the conquerors and the weakness of nations. And in this case, right lies in this strength alone. If the German nation today, penned into an impossible area, faces a lamentable future, this is no more a commandment of Fate than revolt against this state of affairs is an affront to Fate. No more than any higher power has promised another nation more territory than the German nation, or is offended by the fact of this unjust distribution of the soil. Just as our ancestors did not receive the soil on which we live today as a gift from Heaven, but had to fight for it at the risk of their lives, in the future no folkish state will win soil for us and hence life for our people, but only the might of a victorious sword.

The Aryan people—the folkish nation—must turn its “gaze toward the land in the east.” The Germans must “shift to the soil policy of the future.” And in that, Hitler’s meaning was again crystal clear. We “can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.” (646; 653-654)

If war did come what could justify an attack on Germany’s neighbors, Poland and Russia? Hitler explained: “Never forget that the rulers of present-day Russia are common blood-stained criminals; that they are the scum of humanity…that these rulers belong to a race which combines, in a rare mixture, bestial cruelty and an inconceivable gift for lying.” He claimed “the international Jew…completely dominates Russia.” The Bolsheviks were the “spawn of hell.”

It was imperative that Germany expand:

Never regard the Reich as secure unless for centuries to come it can give every scion of or people his own parcel of soil. Never forget that the most sacred right on this earth is a man’s right to have earth to till with his own hands, and the most sacred sacrifice the blood that a man sheds for this earth.

Today we count eighty million Germans in Europe! This foreign policy will be acknowledged correct only if, after scarcely a hundred years, there are two hundred and fifty million Germans on this continent, and not living penned in as factory coolies for the rest of the world, but: as peasants and workers, who guarantee each other’s livelihoods by their labor. (661-662; 664; 673)

As for the Jew, “No nation,” Hitler wrote, “can remove his hand from its throat except by the sword.” (651)

WRITING IN 1923, Hitler was painting a picture of a grim future ahead. Rising to power a decade later, and with accelerating brutality once World War II was begun, tens of millions would die as a result.

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There was never any doubt about what Hitler intended to do.


 (All quotes are from a translation by Ralph Mannheim first published by Houghton Mifflin in 1943. Mein Kampf was published twenty years before.)